Identifying and Explaining Errors

He is liking ice-cream. —> He likes ice cream.

Like is a stative verb so it is rarely used in the progressive form. Of course there are instances where like is used in the progressive tense colloquially to emphasize approval when one anticipated the opposite, for example:

My son doesn’t usually like candy but he’s liking these Twizzlers. [spoken as the speaker’s son is enjoying Twizzlers]

Due to the rarity of this usage, it likely doesn’t require much more than a brief mention in most ESL classrooms. However, the use of stative verbs in the progressive tense could be gaining traction due to the McDonald’s advertising slogan, “I’m lovin’ it.”

After encountering this error, students may need a lesson on stative verbs. A good way to start off a discussion of stative verbs is to draw two large circles on the board and ask students for examples of verbs. The teacher writes verbs that are stative in one circle and those that are dynamic in the other. Once there are several verbs in each circle, the teacher labels the two circles stative and dynamic. The teacher can explain that stative verbs describe a state of being as opposed to dynamic verbs which describes actions. The point can further be illustrated by having students stand up and do the actions from the dynamic side.

Some work to help students would be to have them take sentences with incorrect usage of stative verbs and rewrite them to make them grammatically accurate. Examples include:

These shorts are fitting me. —> These shorts fit me.

I am hating pineapple on pizza. —> I hate pineapple on pizza.

We are liking our new soccer coach. —> We like our new soccer coach.

Our class is knowing how to do long division. —> Our class knows how to do long division.

We go to home directly after school. —> We go home directly after school.

This is a common error with my English language learners. The error in the above sentence is that the word “to” doesn’t make sense in the sentence. Here, the word home is an adverb of place. Adverbs of place do not take prepositions such as at, to, in, or from. Besides home, there are several other common adverbs of place:

upstairs, downstairs, downtown, inside, outside, here, there, back, away, near, close, overseas, everywhere, somewhere, nowhere, underground, northwest

Teachers can guide students through the following examples to help illustrate whether they are looking at a noun or an adverb of place:

I went home.
I cooked at home.

In the first sentence, teachers can point out that one is going in that direction, so home is an adverb of place and doesn’t require a preposition. In the second sentence, when one cooks they aren’t moving towards anything so in this case home is a noun and requires a preposition.
One activity to help students get a feel for adverbs of place is to go through the following actions with students:

Teacher: “Let’s go outside!”
Students: “Let’s go outside!” (everyone follows instruction and goes outside)
Teacher: “Let’s go to the office!”
Students: “Let’s go to the office!” (students go towards the office)
Teacher: “Now, let’s go inside!”
Students: “Now, let’s go inside!” (students walk into the office and exchange salutations with the staff)
Teacher: “Now, let’s go outside!”
Students: “Now, let’s go outside!” (students walk outside, again)
Teacher: “Let’s walk to the slide!”
Students: “Let’s walk to the slide!”
Teacher: “Let’s go up!”
Students: “Let’s go up!”
Teacher: “Let’s go down!”
Students: “Let’s go down!” (students take turns going down the slide)
Teacher: “Let’s go upstairs!”
Students: “Let’s go upstairs!” (students walk upstairs)
Teacher: “Let’s go to the classroom!”
Students: “Let’s go to the classroom!”
Teacher: “Let’s go inside!”
Students: “Let’s go inside!” (students walk back into the classroom and return to their desks)

I find physical activities like these help commit sentence patterns to memory. Students could also benefit from having a transcript of the preceding activity and underlining all the nouns and adverbs of place and circling any prepositions they see. They can also practice saying these sentences and acting out the actions with puppets.

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